Does everyone have a right to a child? Essay
What are the different alternatives to conceiving naturally? Artificial insemination Artificial insemination is often used by couples that are infertile due to sperm disorders such as low sperm count etc. Usually the process involves injecting sperm through a narrow catheter into the womanâ€™s reproductive tract or for most couples AI is performed with the manâ€™s sperm. For: it is a harmless procedure. Against: It goes against religious values because masturbation may be required in the process also it has a low success rate. IVF Couples who usually have unexplained fertility problems or female factor such as blocked fallopian tubes or endometriosis. Step 1: the woman takes fertility drugs to stimulate the production of eggs Step 2: once they are mature they are collected by ultrasound guidance. Step 3: the man produces a sperm sample, which is prepared before being put with the eggs in a Petri dish left for a few days to see if it has fertilised. Step 4: a healthy embryo is placed in the womb Step 5: remaining embryos are suitable for freezing may be stored for future use. For: This treatment option gives women with blocked, damaged or missing fallopian tubes a chance to have a baby. Against: fertility drugs used to stimulate egg production themselves can have severe side effects, risk of multiple pregnancies and increased risk of miscarriage and other complications. Catholics believe IVF is wrong because embryos may be destroyed in the process Intracytoplasmic sperm injection. This procedure would often be used by males with low sperm counts, poor mobility or abnormally shaped sperm. Sperm is usually retrieved from the testicles which is usually involves inserting a small needle to draw out fluid containing sperm. For: it has a 25% success rate Against; the insertion of a needle into a male testicle may be very painful The Roman Catholic Church, under the papacy of Benedict XVI, has condemned the practice of Intracytoplasmic sperm injection, in the magisterial instruction Dignitas Personae because it causes a complete separation between the marital act and childbearing. Gamete intrafallopiam transfer It is often the best choice of For: high success rate between 25-30% Against: The fertility drugs used to stimulate egg production can have severe side effects, you will need to be closely monitored while you are taking them. The Catholic Church nevertheless is concerned with it because, some theologians consider this to be a replacement of the marital act, and therefore immoral. Egg Donation This may be necessary for a number of reasons if the female partner; * If the female has no ovaries * Too many miscarriages * High risk of passing on an inherited disease For: some women receive financial compensation for their time and efforts Against: Since the fertility drugs are injected daily, or several times a day, there is also a risk of infection and bruising at the injection site. Some Christian leaders are concerned about all in vitro fertility therapies because they disrupt the natural act of conceiving a child. Infertile couples are instead encouraged to consider adoption. Sperm Donations Sperm donation may be required if the male partner; * Has had a vasectomy * Has high risk of passing an inherited disease * Is producing little sperm For: Male can receive money for donating his sperm cells Against: Male donor is not allowed to stay anonymous Masturbation may be required to ejaculate the sperm cells which go against catholic teachings as masturbation can be seen as a form of adultery. Surrogacy A surrogacy arrangement is one in which one woman (the surrogate mother) agrees to bear a child for a couple (the intended parents) and surrender it at birth. This provides an opportunity for those who are unable to carry a child themselves to overcome their infertility. For a woman who canâ€™t conceive, surrogacy creates a chance for her and her partner to parent a child who is their genetic offspring at least partially (if they use the fatherâ€™s sperm and the surrogateâ€™s egg) or completely (if they ask the surrogate to carry an embryo created from the motherâ€™s egg and the fatherâ€™s sperm). If they set up an open arrangement, the couple can be intimately involved in all the details of their babyâ€™s gestation and may be there for the birth of their baby. Against: In addition to the complications accompanying procedures, such as IUI and IVF, surrogacy is highly controversial and can be legally complex. Some surrogates face difficult emotional and psychological issues over letting the baby go. The infertile couple not only experience the usual suspense and anxiety of waiting for a pregnancy to reach full-term safely but also worry about legal complications, the ethics of â€œbuyingâ€ a child and the possibility that the surrogate will change her mind. Roman Catholics do not allow any form of fertility treatments where spare embryoâ€™s are created Catholics believe they are not a disposable commodities. Adoption This is when a person is given the right to look after a child who is not of their own; there are three forms of adoption such as gay, single and ethnic. Gay adoption is when a gay couple adopt a child; people are concerned with the upbringing of a child to a gay couple and may object to this because the child may face bullying because of their adopted parents being 2 men or 2 women. Single adoption also raises concern because the single parents may not have the time to look after their adopted child and may not be able to fulfil the Childs care needs. Ethnic adoption is one which raises the most concern because as we see from the media celebrities use foreign children for fame and as a fashion accessory, also the child may feel lost and lose their sense of identity. Catholics believe that adoption is the best alternative to fertility treatment because no embryos are harmed in the process. Conclusion In conclusion I believe all fertility treatments are right because everyone has the right to bear life and god encourages us to mate. So partners who want children should be able to have children whether it is in a natural way i.e. intercourse or artificial treatments such as IVF. Scenarios Scenario 1 In this scenario a married woman who has had her embryoâ€™s frozen has passed away but she wishes for her embryoâ€™s to be destroyed as she had passed away, but her husband now wants to use the embryoâ€™s to carry his dead wifeâ€™s child/baby. I believe he is going against his wifeâ€™s wishes therefore he is should not do it, as it is also disrespectful to his late wife. Scenario 2 Julie was dying from leukaemia and she wanted, to store her embryoâ€™s to be frozen. I believe that they should not use a surrogate mother because the child would not have their true mother and it is unfair to the child as they are born without their mother so I believe that the embryos should be destroyed. Scenario 3 A couple have embryos left over from their IVF treatment and they are not too sure what to do. The doctor suggests that they should be used for other patients so their embryos remain frozen in perpetuity. I believe they should be donated instead of destroyed because they can help other people who were in their position. Scenario 4 Lorraine Hadley had two frozen embryos with her husband when she found out she was diagnosed with cancer buy dissertation online and the treatment could leave her infertile, however when she split up with her husband he wished the embryoâ€™s to be destroyed and the court has said the same thing. I believe because this the only way for Lorraine to have a child she should still be able to keep the embryos and subsequently have the child because every mother has the right to keep their child whether it is born or still an embryo. Scenario 5 Liz Buttle told doctors a lie and had IVF at the age of 61 claiming she was 49; she now has a child named Joe. I believe that this is totally immoral because she told a lie and got a child which she may not be able to physically look after also the child may feel uncomfortable having a mother who is old enough to be his grandmother and a sister who is old enough to be his mother.
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